Everybody has an accent. Nobody is exempt, although many of us perhaps feel we are. That’s because we tend to perceive other people’s accents relative to our own, which we perceive as neutral and accentless.
An accent may come to be considered as ‘standard’, and again
this may be perceived as neutral and accentless by the people who speak it.
Hence the nonsense phrase, ‘getting rid of your accent’. On the face of it,
this is impossible – but clearly, what it means is developing an accent which
is more like the one which is considered ‘standard’.
Speaking with a ‘standard’ accent confers advantages –
opportunities may be denied to people ‘with an accent’. This is what lies
behind the one time popularity of elocution lessons – people seeking to improve
their life prospects by modifying their speech. However, we should remember
that ‘standard’ does not mean better: as Linguist John Wells puts it, ‘… a
standard accent is regarded as a standard … not because of any intrinsic
qualities it may possess, but because of an arbitrary attitude adopted towards
it by society…’ (Wells 1982 p34).
the accent long seen as standard is ‘Received Pronunciation’ (RP), where the
word ‘received’ is used in the sense of ‘accepted’. In elocution lessons, RP is
typically the target model, and ELT has followed the lead: pronunciation
teachers have been expected to present the RP model to their students. But can
RP be plausibly described as ‘standard’ in the sense of ‘widespread’ today?
Geoff Lindsey of University College, London,
argues that it can’t.
This article first appeared in English Teaching Professional Issue 22 May 2019
Pronunciation straddles two domains: it is part language – like grammar or vocabulary – and part skill – like speaking or listening. This unique position makes pronunciation teaching interestingly varied, and potentially very enjoyable too. It is so much more than the ‘listen-and-repeat’ stereotype that is sometimes attached to it, and can’t be reduced to one single thing in this way. In this article, I will suggest that we can, in fact, divide it into four general areas, and I will label these with a mnemonic of four words, each beginning with m: muscle, mind, meaning and memory.
Review of Geoff Lindsey (2019) English after RP: Standard British Pronunciation Today Palgrave
If you teach English pronunciation, you will know that most
text books present a model which claims to be either standard American or
standard British. The latter is often referred to as RP (Received
Pronunciation), and is usually represented by a set of phonetic symbols chosen
over half a century ago by A. C. Gimson. Geoff Lindsey makes the point that if
a person speaks in exactly the way that these symbols indicate, they will sound
comically old-fashioned. His new book English
after RP sets out to describe they ways in which standard British has
evolved away from RP. He suggests alternative phonetic symbols which would be
more appropriate for modern Standard Southern British English, but he also
recognises that the traditional set will not be changed overnight, given the
number of text books still using them. If we are to stick with the symbols
currently in use, we will need to avoid taking them at phonetic face value –
the symbols no longer accurately describe the facts.
We sometimes dehumanize pronunciation in the way we talk about it. If a learner mispronounces a word, we might say, ‘It isn’t pronounced like that; it’s pronounced …’ (and then we model the ‘correct’ way). In the dictionary, there are transcriptions to tell us how words are pronounced. Talking about weak forms, we might say, ‘In these words, the vowel sound is reduced to a schwa’. On the topic of word stress, we might say, ‘Most two-syllable nouns are stressed on the first syllable’. I’ve highlighted the verb forms above to demonstrate how easy it is to slip into the passive when talking about pronunciation, which is fine, but what it does is conceal the identity of who is doing the action. It doesn’t tell us who pronounces things this way – it removes the human from the equation.
PronPack is now available in Australia from Bookery! To celebrate, we have added Australia to our atlas of “Air Traffic Control”boards – see a free sample of the game here. Download the various versions here (Activity 3.1 New Versions).
This article was first published in Speak Out issue 60. Speak Out is the journal of the IATEFL Pronunciation special interest group. In this article, I will suggest that following the recognition of English’s role as a global Lingua Franca, there has been an impasse created by two conflicting reactions: dogma and denial. I will discuss the possible implications of ELF for pronunciation teaching goals, and suggest how we can distinguish features which are important for global intelligibility from those which are not. I will highlight the importance of distinguishing productive and receptive goals, and consider the issue of what part models play in a context where accent variability is a central concern. I will consider contexts where simple intelligibility is not enough. Finally, I will suggest that a shift in how we express goals, from product (model accent) to process (accommodation) may provide a means of getting past the impasse of dogma and denial.Continue reading “ELF: Beyond Dogma and Denial”
1 Know your objective. Pronunciation is about being understood by people all over the globe. It’s not about pretending to be American or British. You don’t need to teach every small detail of the way they speak in the US or UK – very few learners will ever learn that, and there is no reason to anyway. English is a world language now – it doesn’t belong to any particular country.
2 I’m OK! Say that to yourself. Teachers sometimes feel they aren’t a good pronunciation model because they aren’t ‘native speakers’. That’s not true. If you are an intelligible speaker of English, you are a perfect model. When we think of English as a lingua franca, the term ‘native speaker’ no longer makes sense – we are all native speakers of it!